SC知識點:(語意合理性)句首/句尾Ving修飾的時序判斷

在英文裡面,基本上有三種Ving結構的修飾分別叫做句首(脫節?dangling)句中(先討論非限定修飾)句尾(extending)。這三種大家遇到了,若是句首句尾都只會找邏輯主詞,若是句中就是只會找最接近名詞。



但是,我要請大家留意英文的logical expression規則:若沒有特殊意思的連接詞/介係詞(如after/because...)通常英語都會將時間由先到後,由因到果去敘述。另外很重要的一點就是,句首句尾的ving結構要跟主要句子有邏輯關係(不管是前情/後果/背景補充)

A-bien has been in jail for 7 years, loving to shake hands with Ma.
這種句子就是無邏輯關係的Ving。

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因此,句首的脫節結構一律作為主句或主詞的「前情提要/有邏輯相關性的補充資訊」發生時間點一律是在主要句子之前(前情提要)或同時(補充資訊),時間點絕不可能在主句之後,更不可能放結果。

Using a Doppler ultrasound device, a physician can detect fetal heartbeats by the twelfth week of pregnancy.(前情提要)

Spanning more than fifty years, Friedrich Miiller's career began in an unpromising apprenticeship as a Sanskrit scholar and culminated in virtually every honor that European governments and learned societies could bestow. (補充資訊)

句尾的延伸結構做三種作用:1. 補充說明主句 2. 主句的伴隨結果 3. 主句的接續動作
發生時間點一律是在主詞之後(伴隨結果/接續動作)或同時(補充說明)
時間點絕不可能在主句之前,也不能放原因。

In a plan to stop the erosion of East Coast beaches, the Army Corps of Engineers proposed building parallel to shore a breakwater of rocks that would rise six feet above the waterline and act as a buffer, absorbing the energy of crashing waves and protecting the beaches.

Five fledgling sea eagles left their nests in western Scotland this summer, bringing to 34 the number of wild birds successfully raised since transplants from Norway began in 1975.

接續動作的用法GMAT好像還沒出現,但至少沒有出現在錯誤選項。造一個例句:He sat on the sofa, switching on the TV.(在沙發上坐下來,接著打開電視)

句中的,Ving則一律當補充說明的非限定修飾,若沒有特殊指出時間的話,會與主句同時。

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舉上面的例子,

Using a Doppler ultrasound device, a physician can detect fetal heartbeats by the twelfth week of pregnancy.

這句若寫成

A physician can detect fetal heartbeats by the twelfth week of pregnancy, using a Doppler ultrasound device.

大家一讀就知道怪,哪裡怪?怪就怪在時序倒置。
如果必須要時序倒置,為了避免聽者傻眼,英文會特別用一些詞來指明,比如

A physician can detect fetal heartbeats by the twelfth week of pregnancy "with" a Doppler ultrasound device.

A physician can detect fetal heartbeats by the twelfth week of pregnancy "because" he has a Doppler ultrasound device.

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造一個句首、句中、句尾ving都有出現的句子跟大家說明:
Fighting for his next presidency, Obama has urged the Republicans, arguing heavily against the health insurance bill, to support his budget-cutting act, triggering an overwhelming dispute over the State.

(亂造的)
看得出來句首句中句尾的作用嗎?分別是「前情提要」「補充說明」「伴隨結果」,時間點分別落在之前、之中、之後。

若是寫成Triggering an overwhelming dispute over the State, Obama has urged the Republicans to support his act, fighting for his next presidency. 時間點倒置就會讓聽者覺得莫名其妙。
除非使用:Causing an overwhelming dispute..., Obama has urged ...to support his act because he want to fight for his next presidency.才會讓大家理解清楚。

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再舉一題OG:

The Olympic Games helped to keep peace among the pugnacious states of the Greek "world in that a sacred truce was proclaimed during the festival's month."
(B) world, proclaiming a sacred truce during the festival’s month
(D) world, for a sacred truce was proclaimed during the month of the festival

爭議點大多在於這兩個選項。為什麼會覺得B可以?因為大家都覺得句尾Ving就找邏輯主詞就好了嘛!也感覺Games似乎可以proclaim,很多人就會選他。但是你沒發現,到底是proclaim a sacred truce先還是keep peace先?應該是先有sacred truce才能維護和平吧。B選項的寫法將時序倒反了,不是logical expression,因此直接是錯誤答案。D選項則很聰明地加上表達原因的for。